There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. , Following the successful formation of Malaysia, Donald Stephens became the first chief minister of Sabah. It then formally emerged as Malaysia with the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak on 16 September, 1963 when Malaysia inherited the British colonial enterprise in Northern Borneo. Requests for financial backing from the US government proved futile and the settlement was later abandoned. He said, “No country can tell another what it can and cannot say about what the latter regards as rightfully its own. Following the world financial crisis in 2009, Sabah GDP recorded 4.8% growth compared to −1.5% for national level and −0.4% for world level. There are also Indonesian labourers from Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands. The KK Sentral operating express bus services from the city to Beaufort, Sipitang, Menumbok, Lawas and Brunei.  On 14 June 1976, the state government of Sabah led by the new chief minister Harris Salleh signed an agreement with Petronas, the federal government-owned oil and gas company, granting it the right to extract and earn revenue from petroleum found in the territorial waters of Sabah in exchange for 5% in annual revenue as royalties based on the 1974 Petroleum Development Act.  In 1370, Brunei transferred its allegiance to Ming dynasty of China.  The project is divided into two packages: the first package covering the West Coast area will complete in 2021, while the second covering the East Coast area will finish in 2022. Philippines, Malaysia spar over Sabah ownership, reviving long-standing dispute  Since 2007, there is an attempt to establish a coal power plant in Lahad Datu which receiving opposition from local residents and non-governmental organisations for the pollution that would be caused by the plant. Indeed, the Sabah Dispute between the Philippines and Malaysia remains unresolved until today fundamentally because of the contending claims on the 1878 Treaty between the Sultanate of Sulu and the British North Borneo Company or the British government for that matter. The dispute is about the claim of both countries over much of the eastern parts of Sabah, one of Malaysia’s 13 states.  The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park is a group of five islands of Gaya, Manukan, Mamutik, Sapi and Sulug. , Sabah consists of five administrative divisions, which are in turn divided into 26 districts. (SESB). The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the head of state although its functions are largely ceremonial.  Although the Philippine claim to Sabah has not been actively pursued for some years, some Filipino politicians are promising to bring it up again, while the Malaysian government asks the Philippines not to threaten ties over such issue. The Philippines stands firm that the 1878 Treaty was a Lease and not a “Deed of Cessation” as opposed to the claim and contention of Overbeck and Dent on 22 January, 1878, where the British North Borneo Company presented the said treaty in London saying that the Sultan of Sulu ceded North Borneo to them under their translations and interpretations of the contents of the 1878 Treaty.  As part of the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), the federal government has approved an allocation of RM800 million to expand the cargo handling of Sapangar Bay Container Port from 500,000 to 1.25 million TEUs per annum as well to accommodate larger ship like Panamax-size vessels.  It claims that the territory is connected with the Sultanate of Sulu and was only leased to the North Borneo Chartered Company in 1878 with the Sultanate's sovereignty never being relinquished.  Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include the Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, Imbak Canyon and Sepilok. Following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia (established on 16 September 1963) alongside Sarawak, Singapore (expelled in 1965), and the Federation of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia or West Malaysia). About 200 armed followers of a self-proclaimed sultan of Sulu in southern Philippines invaded Sabah state in …  High migration to the state was noticeable in the 1970s, when hundreds of thousands of Filipino refugees, mostly the Moros, began arriving due to the Moro conflict in the county. The state was subsequently acquired by the British-based North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century.  The coastal areas occasionally experience severe storms as the state is situated south of the typhoon belt.  Thus to prevent the continuous shortage of doctors, the federal government has initiated various measure to produce more physicians with massive funds has been allocated to healthcare sector in every year country budget.  The timber industry start to emerged in the 1960s due to high demand of raw materials from industrial countries.  Sabah has a natural gas demand of 9.9 million cubic metres (350 million cubic feet) per day at standard conditions in 2013, which increase to 14.8 million m3 (523 million cu ft) per day in 2015.  The state coastline is covered with mangrove and nipah forests.  A South Korean company GS Caltex also sets to built Malaysia's first bio-butanol plant in the state. Due to this, SDC was implemented to expand the road coverage in Sabah along with the construction of Pan-Borneo Highway. The Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off the Sabah coast. , Rampant fish bombing has destroyed many coral reefs and affecting fisheries production in the state.  However, through the process of the proposed amendment to the Constitution of Malaysia in 2019, the bill for the amendment failed to pass following the failure to reach two-thirds majority support (148 votes) in the Parliament with only 138 agreed with the move while 59 abstained from the voting.  While Sydney-based Australian author Lynette Ramsay Silver wrote two books about the history of Sabah such as "Sandakan – A Conspiracy of Silence" (1998) and "Blood Brothers – Sabah and Australia 1942–1945" (2010). Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNIRAZAK) has set up their regional centre in Kota Kinabalu. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah state government.  Other main newspapers include the independent Daily Express, Overseas Chinese Daily News, the Sarawak-based The Borneo Post, the Peninsular-based Sin Chew Daily and the Brunei-based Borneo Bulletin. But the territory was once part of the centuries-old sultanate of Sulu, and Filipino politicians have sometimes used that history to suggest Sabah should be part of the modern-day Philippines. , As of 2015, Sabah was producing 180,000 barrel of oil equivalent per day and currently receives 5% oil royalty (percentage of oil production paid by the mining company to the lease owner) from Petronas over oil explorations in Sabah territorial waters based on the 1974 Petroleum Development Act. I am summoning the Malaysian ambassador.”.  Most trunk roads was then constructed from the 1970s until the 1980s under the World Bank loans.  North Borneo then became a protectorate of the United Kingdom in 1888 despite facing local resistance from 1894 to 1900 by Mat Salleh and Antanum in 1915. The Philippines is like an inverted bottle with the Sulu Sea as its open end in the south and to which North Borneo is the cork.  Tourism plays a crucial role in the state's economy as the third largest income generating sectors with the state itself recorded a total of 3,879,413 tourist arrivals in 2018, a growth of 5.3% compared to 3,684,734 in 2017.  As a result of this campaign, it is believed that many of his followers in addition to other Chinese traders eventually settled and established their own enclave at Kinabatangan River. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, Esq., of Sarawak", "British North Borneo Treaties.  In 2019, both Sabah and Sarawak Sports Ministries work together to establish the East Malaysia Sports Commission to facilitate the organisation of more sports programmes in the two territories including other places in the Borneo islands.  Malaysia however, considers this dispute as a "non-issue", as it interprets the 1878 agreement as that of cession and that it deems that the residents of Sabah had exercised their right to self-determination when they joined to form the Malaysian federation in 1963. Sabah FA was founded in 1963 with the association have won one title each on the Malaysia FA Cup in 1995, Malaysia Premier League in 1996 and 2019, President Cup Malaysia in 1999, 13 titles in the past Borneo Cup and 11 titles in the women's football Tun Sharifah Rodziah Cup. The new state government also stated that they will look into the matters if there is a need for a change in the state law. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature systems in Malaysia. The Japanese ran a brutal prisoner of war camp known as Sandakan camp for those siding with the British.  Neighbouring Sarawak has also previously announced intention to provide additional electricity power to Sabah with full export will be finalised in 2021. To note, the people of Sabah were allowed by the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General to be part of the Malaysian Federation in August 1963 given the results of the “Cobbold Commission of 1962”, which was set up to determine the consent of the people of Sabah and Sarawak, and surveyed their voices if they were amenable to joining the Federation of Malaysia.  The Tun Mustapha Marine Park is the largest marine park located in the north of Sabah. Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the west and the Philippines to the north and east.  Most residents from the low income groups would rather use mobile phones internet or use internet at their offices instead of setting up internet access at home due to the expensive cost and slow services. The followers of Jamalul Kiram III, the self-proclaimed Sultan of Sulu, tried to takeover parts of Malaysia's Sabah state in 2013. Sabah has remained an integral part of Malaysia in accordance with the wishes of the people of Sabah expressed more than five decades ago.  Before the formation of Malaysia, the state together with Sarawak only has rudimentary road systems.  Various other American films have been taken in the state, such as the "Three Came Home" (1950), a Hollywood film based on the memoir of Agnes Newton Keith in her book depicting the situation of World War II in Sandakan.  The Sultanate of Bulungan's influence was limited to the Tawau area, who came under the influence of the Sulu Sultanate before gaining its own rule after the 1878 treaty between the British and Spanish governments.  In the same year, the state export value stood at RM45.3 billion with an import value of RM36.5 billion. , Sabah culture is diverse due to a wide range of different ethnicity. , An airplane crash on 6 June 1976 killed Stephens along with four other state cabinet ministers.  In 1960, the overall literacy rate in North Borneo was only 24%. Signed at Kuala Lumpur on 7 May 1965", "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Malaysia – Exchange of notes constituting an agreement relating to pensions and compensation for officers designated by the Government of the United Kingdom in the service of the State Government of Sabah and Sarawak", "ESSCOM will continue to hold programmes on security within ESSZONE", "MACC, Esscom to launch operation to combat integrity breaches among Sabah civil servants", "Malaysia's territorial disputes – two cases at the ICJ : Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan [and the Sabah claim] (Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines)", "Border disputes differ for Indonesia, M'sia", "Binay to pursue territorial claim to Sabah if elected", "PH to assert claims over Spratlys, Sabah – Duterte", "Citing militant threats on Sabah, BN MP tells Putrajaya to cut diplomatic ties to Manila", "Malaysia asks Philippines not to threaten ties over Sabah claim", "Police to propose banning barter trade in Sabah", "Review barter system between Sabah and southern Philippines: Ahmad Zahid", "Basilan officials urge closer Mindanao-Sabah relations, expresses concern on proposed barter trade ban", "Sabah closes eastern borders to stop kidnapping menace", "Tawau residents support directive to stop barter trade in Sabah", "Sabah to lift barter trade ban in east coast from Feb 1", "Cross border trade between Malaysia and ARMM's island provinces to reopen on Feb. 1", "Sabah trades cautiously with the Philippines due to security situation", "PH, Malaysia put Sabah dispute on 'back burner, "The Fisheries Industry in Sabah – A Short Profile", "Convention on the Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization Done at Geneva on 6 March 1948 [Communication From the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland]", "Environmental Law and Policy in Sabah: From Ridge to Reef – Volume 4: Coasts, Islands and Seas", "The geological heritage values and potential geotourism development of the beaches in Northern Sabah, Malaysia", "The Interannual Variability of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Southern South China Sea", "106 die in storm and 3,000 are left homeless", School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, "Shedding new light on recent Sabah earthquake", "Biodiversity conservation in multiple-use forest landscapes in Sabah, Malaysia", "Case study on river management: Kinabatangan", "Marine Park Management: Issues and Challenges", "Introduction to Tunku Abdul Rahman Park", "Status of Coral Reef Communities on Two Carbonate Platforms (Tun Sakaran Marine Park, East Sabah, Malaysia)", "Introduction to Tun Sakaran Marine Park", "(Educational) Why We Should Protect Turtle", "Environmental Law and Policy in Sabah: From Ridge to Reef – Volume 3: Forests, Mangroves and Wildlife Reserves", "State may implement seasonal hunting as part of its conservation effort", "Official: Forests in Sabah depleting fast due to logging", "Respect Sabah's forestry rights, Department tells Minister", "A report on the State of the Environment in Sabah", "Small fires by farmers causing Sabah's choking haze", "Blast fishing in Borneo: 'bombs are quick, but they kill the coral reefs, "Officials: Sumatran rhino is extinct in the wild in Sabah", "Banteng next on extinction list after rhino in Sabah?  In 2019, Digi launches its home fibre broadband in Sabah with speed up to 1 Gbit/s. Bhd", "Borneo-Mindanao power interconnection pushed", "Palawan moving closer to getting power from Sabah", "Power linkage pushed between Palawan, Sabah", "Malaysia scraps Sabah coal power plant project", "NGOs alarmed over reviving Sabah coal power plant", "Renewable energy more powerful than a coal-fired power plant", "Radin: Govt supports renewable energy in Sabah", "Grassroots Grant Assistance Project for Electrification of Community Centre by Solar Energy in Pulau Larapan, Sabah", "Malaysia's first geothermal power plant to open in Tawau", "Sabah geothermal power plant project found abandoned, Dewan Rakyat told", "Koreans eye Sabah to site world's first bio-butanol plant", "Sustainable Usage of Energy to Support Growth (Strategy Paper 17)", "All permits for LPG sale in Sebatik cancelled", "Chapter 2: An Overview of the Telecommunications Industry in Malaysia", "Changing role of the Telecoms Department", "Sabah and Sarawak likely to get more for telecommunications and broadcasting", "Positive steps to increase Internet penetration: Pang", "Celcom Fibre service now available in Sabah, up to 100Mbps", "Digi launches Home Fibre Broadband in Sabah, up to 1Gbps", "Coverage not reason for Sabah's low broadband penetration", Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, "Communications Content & Infrastructure", "DPM launches East Malaysia International Internet Gateway project", "Undersea stations to turn Sabah into telecom hub", "TM Sabah to install additional 30,000 'home passes' for Unifi service", "Faster, cheaper Internet access in the pipeline", "BIMP-EAGA cable project to improve Internet in ARMM", "Sabah set to be regional ICT hub with telco deal", "MCMC proposes free WiFi for Kota Kinabalu", "Digital television broadcasting now a trend, necessity – Expert", "TM Sabah to install additional 30,000 'home passes' for UniFi service", "The Independent Newspaper in Brunei Darussalam, Sabah and Sarawak", "11,355km of 21,934km Sabah roads sealed", "Sabah considers tunnels to bypass landslides", "Highway completion to make Borneo a huge mart", "Pan Borneo Highway – link of a thousand opportunities", "Najib arrives in Sabah to launch Sabah Pan-Borneo Highway project", "Launch of a new landmark for Kota Kinabalu", "RM1b Bus Rapid Transport system ready 2020: CM", "BRT KK to have 25km of dedicated bus lanes", "KKIA the perfect gateway to M'sia from east", "MAS Airbus A350 conducts test flight to KKIA", "Location of airports in Malaysia [Sabah]", "China's Airfield Construction at Fiery Coast Reef in Context: Catch-up or Coercion?  British Army senior officer Michael Carver then reminded the Philippines that Britain would honour its obligations under the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement (AMDA) if fighting broke out. 2) Act 1984", "The Court finds that sovereignty over the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan belongs to Malaysia", "Berjaya govt let 73,000 refugees into Sabah", "Hung assembly in Sabah sees intense political horse-trading", "PBS leaves BN, Musa Aman to leave Umno and join PBS", "Warisan now has 35 seats, enough to form state government: Shafie [NSTTV]", "Sabah having two CMs sparks constitutional crisis? Mr Hishammudin also said he would summon the Philippines’ ambassador to Kuala Lumpur Charles Jose …  This forced the British to seek refuge in Brunei in 1774, and to abandon temporarily their attempts to find alternative sites for the factory. Local authorities have their officials appointed by the executive council of the state government.  The recent findings in 2011 found the literacy rate have increase to 79%.  The Sulu claimed that Sultan Muhyiddin had promised to cede the northern and eastern portion of Borneo to them in compensation for their help in settling the civil war.  The barter trade activity was resumed on 1 February 2017 with the increase of security surveillance and enforcement from both Malaysia and the Philippines authorities to jointly secure their borders.  It was finally agreed to exempt the policy from 1 June 2017; with foreign ships will go directly to ports in the East without need to go to West Malaysia although Cabotage Policy on transshipment of goods within Sabah and Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan remain.  This was enforced then although facing numerous opposition from Filipino resident on the nearest Philippine islands due to the raise of the living cost in their region after the ban as well from the Malaysian opposition parties, while receiving positive welcomes by Sabahans residents and politicians. This file photo shows Malaysian police (R) and an army truck driving past each other in Lahad Datu on the Malaysian island of Borneo.  Every ethnic groups also known for their traditional dances; both Kadazan-Dusun were known for their Sumazau dance, the Murut with their Magunatip, the Rungus with their Mongigol Sumundai, The Lun Bawang/Lun Dayeh with their Alai Busak Baku, the Brunei Malays with their Adai-Adai, the West Coast Bajau with their Limbai and Kuda Pasu, the East Coast Bajau and Suluk with their Pangalay (also known as Daling-Daling or Mengalai), Bisaya with their Liliput and the Cocos Malays with their Dansa and Nona Mansaya along with many other dances from other sub-ethnic groups.  In the East Coast, the service are provided from the Tawau Ferry Terminal to Nunukan and Tarakan in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sabahan DJs are mostly hired and local state songs will be played to meet Sabahan listeners taste and slang.  The Sultanate authorised Schuck to establish a trading port to monopolise the rattan trade in the northeast coast, where Schuck could operate freely, without the Spanish blockade.  Both coastal areas in the west coast and east coast are entirely dominating by sand beaches, while in sheltered areas the sand was mixed with mud.  The fisheries industries remain the important part of Sabah primary sector economy with a contribution for about 200,000 metric tonnes of fish worth RM700 annually as well contributing 2.8% to the state annual GDP.  Other museums include the Agop Batu Tulug Museum, Agnes Keith House, Sandakan Heritage Museum, Teck Guan Cocoa Museum and 3D Wonders Museum. Sabah is also one of the producer of seaweed, with most of the farms are located in the seas around Semporna.  Despite the return of barter trade activity, the state of Sabah has maintained they will always be cautious on their trade with the Philippines. British North Borneo 1882–1941; 1945–1946 However, we in the …  The majority of the POWs were British and Australian soldiers captured after the fall of Malaya and Singapore. , Sabah's public infrastructure are still lagged behind mostly due to its geographical challenges as the second largest state in Malaysia.  By 2016, the federal government has start to establish the first internet gateway for East Malaysia with the laying of 60 terabyte submarine cable which are developed by a private company named Xiddig Cellular Communications Sdn.  While the East Coast Grid supplies electricity to the major towns of Sandakan, Kinabatangan, Lahad Datu, Kunak, Semporna and Tawau with a capacity of 333.02 MW and maximum demand of 203.3 MW. As to when it will finally be settled is yet to be ascertained. Another port, the Sapangar Bay Oil Terminal is the main terminal for refined petroleum products and liquid chemical in the West Coast. 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